5 types of Pie Pastry -quiche

5種類のキッシュやパイ生地の違い

パイ生地種類のまとめ  for  Perfect & Foolproof Quiche

5 types of pie pasty

  • Short crust pastry (pâte brisée) no sugar, perfect for savory dishes. It is the simplest and most common pastry. It is made with flour, fat, butter, salt, and water to bind the dough. This is used mainly in tarts. It is also the pastry that is used most often in making a quiche. (as in crumbly; hence the term shortcrust), tender pastry.
  • Sweet crust pastry (pâte sucrée,) in which sugar and egg yolks have been added (rather than water) to bind the short crust pastry
  • Sable pastry (pâte sablée) This crust is known as a sweet cookie crust or a shortbread crust. Itis similar of Sweet crust pastry pâte sucrée. But to make a pâte sablée, wet ingredients are creamed together before adding the dry ingredients. Therefore, the texture become sable cookies, “ sandy”,
  • Flaky pastry is a for Americans recipes, (not in French recipe), it expands when cooked due to the number of layers. It bakes into a crisp, buttery pastry.
  • Puff pastry(pâte feuilletée) .Regarded as the ultimate professional pastry, this type is time-consuming but worth making. It is used for savoury pie crusts and as wrapping for meat and poultry, as well as vol-au-vents, cream horns and mille feuilles. Puff pastries come out of the oven light, flaky, and tender.

参照: Wiki Shortcrust pastry, sweetcrust pastry, (Pate Sucree)

pâte sucrée (difference from Pate sucree) par le fait que le beurre est incorporé à la préparation par sablage et non par crémage, c’est-à-dire qu’il est mélangé à froid avec la farine et le sucre. Le beurre entoure ainsi chaque grain de farine et de sucre, ce qui fait qu’après la cuisson les grains ne sont pas totalement solidaires, ce qui donne la texture sablée.Les œufs sont ajoutés avant incorporation de la farine.  Flaky pastry

Puff pastry pâte feuilletée
Choux pastry 
Phyllo (Filo)
Hot water crust pastry

Shortcrust Pastry

This is probably the most versatile type of pastry as it can be used for savoury and sweet pies, tarts and flans. There are several different ways of making shortcrust pastry. (See ‘How to Make Perfect Shortcrust Pastry.’)

Puff Pastry

This is one of the ‘flaked pastries’ characterised by fat and air being trapped between the layers of the pastry dough to give a flimsy, light and crisp finish.

Regarded as the ultimate professional pastry, this type is time-consuming but worth making. It is used for savoury pie crusts and as wrapping for meat and poultry, as well as vol-au-vents, cream horns and mille feuilles (small iced cakes that are filled with jam and cream.)

Flaky Pastry

Used as a crust for savoury pies, sausage rolls, Eccles cakes and jam puffs, flaky pastry is best made in cool conditions and must be chilled during and after making, to prevent the fat content from melting out under cooking conditions.

Rough Puff Pastry

This type is a cross between puff and flaky pastry. It is also good for sausage rolls, savoury pie crusts and tarts and has the advantage of being easier to make than puff pastry, but is as light as flaky pastry.

All three of these flaked pastries need similar care.

  • Handle as little and as lightly as possible
  • Fat and dough content should be of the same consistency and temperature
  • Roll pastry evenly without stretching it or forcing out air
  • Brush with beaten egg glaze before baking

 

Flaky pastry, also known as blitz pastry or rough puff, is a light and flaky unleavened pastry that is similar to, but distinct from, puff pastry. Flaky pastry relies on large lumps of shortening (approximately 1 in or 2.5 cm across) mixed into the dough, as opposed to the large rectangle of shortening in puff pastry.

Choux Pastry

This incredibly light speciality pastry is used in the making of éclairs, profiteroles and cream buns. Air lifts the pastry during cooking to treble in size…all those cream-filled delights.

Filo Pastry

This type of pastry (along with finely shredded kadafi pastry, also from the Mediterranean) is made in very thin sheets and used as a casing for numerous delicate savoury and sweet dishes. Made with high gluten content flour, filo is very difficult to make and needs careful handling because it is such a thin, fragile pastry that dries out quickly. Some people prefer to buy readymade filo pastry, but even that is not easy to use. It must be brushed with oil or melted butter/ghee before shaping and cooking. Samosas are deep-fried with spicy fillings, wrapped in filo pastry, and prawns in filo pastry make popular savoury nibbles. This type is similar to strudel pastry.

Suet Crust Pastry

A traditional, British, pastry used for steamed or boiled puddings, dumplings and roly-poly puddings. Steak and kidney pudding is famously made with suet crust pastry as is spotted dick and treacle pudding.

Made with self-raising flour, shredded suet and for some lighter recipes, fresh white breadcrumbs, suet crust pastry should have a light spongy texture-it is very filling though!

Hot Water Crust Pastry

Moulded by hand while warm and used for raised meat and game pies (like the famous Melton Mowbray Pork Pies) hot water crust pastry is a rich and crisp speciality. Plain flour, salt, egg yolk and lard boiled up with water are the ingredients which, once mixed, kneaded, shaped and rested, can be used to line a hinged tin pie mould, or moulded over a large floured jam jar. Once set, the dough is filled, covered, sealed and decorated before being baked.

Pate Sucree Pastry

As the name suggests, this pastry is French. It is a sweet pastry that incorporates sugar and egg yolks for a rich, sweet result. Usually baked blind, it gives a thin, crisp pastry that melts in the mouth.

These are a few of the basic pastry types. Making pastry is not difficult and with attention to a few important details like:

  • correct fat to flour ratio-roughly half as much fat to flour
  • add water carefully and slowly, preferably from the fridge
  • handle pastry as little as possible
  • avoid over-flouring the rolling pin and board
  • always preheat the oven to the recommended temperature

you will be making pies, puddings and parcels with confidence.

Reference:

http://www.learncooking.co.uk/types-pastry.html

How To Make a Foolproof Quiche

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Quiche &History キッシュの歴史

Quiche & History キッシュの歴史  l’histoire de la quiche

Quiche lorraine is French’s all-time favourite, but still, the very basic quiche in France, named after Lorraine region of France.  This quiche was originally with a filling of custard, and only with lardons(bacon). Nowadays, There are many variants of quiche, including a wide variety of ingredients, and their named descriptively & influenced by regions, history & episodes, e.g. quiche florentine ( with spinach) and provençale (with tomatoes).

Mayu’s Kitchenの勉強会の巻: フランス人が「キッシュ」といえば、必ずと言っていいほど、キッシュロレーヌのこと。うちのダーリンの出身、ロレーヌ地方の名物料理で、ベーコン、卵、生クリームを使ったシンプルなもので、今も昔も変わらぬ定番中の定番。でも今や、キッシュはフランス全土にあるし、その土地土地で中身の具材は違うし、キッシュは日本人にとっての”丼もの”といったところでしょうか? 日本全国、名産!〇〇丼ってありますから(笑)

Quiche lorraine est tous les temps de favori des Français, mais encore, la quiche très basique en France, nommé d’après la région Lorraine en France. La quiche lorraine est une tarte salée composée d’une pâte brisée garnie d’un appareil, (appelé “migaine” dan lorraine), et de lardons fumés. La migaine est constituée d’œufs, de crème fraîche.   De nos jours, il existe de nombreuses variantes de quiche, y compris une grande variété d’ingrédients, et leur nom descriptivement et influencés par les régions, l’histoire et des épisodes, par exemple quiche florentine (aux épinards) et provençale (avec des tomates).

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Let’s talk about the history of quiche.   The etymology may be related to the German “Kuchen” meaning “cake” or “tart”,  And it exist around 14 /15 centuries.   Then, the word is first attested in the book of “l’hôpital Saint-Julien de Nancy” in 1605 (Guy Carbourdin).)

さて、キッシュの歴史を少々ご紹介。 キッシュ(quiche )とはアルザス語でKüchen 。その語源はドイツ語のKuchen(フランス語で言うと、gâteau, お菓子、という意味)から来たもので、すでに14〜15世紀にはあったそうですが、「キッシュ・ロレーヌ」として正式 に登場したのは、1605年、”l’hôpital Saint-Julien de Nancy”  (Guy Carbourdin著).) に登場。

Parlons de l’histoire de la quiche. L’étymologie peut être liée à l’allemand “Kuchen” qui signifie “gâteau” ou “tarte”, Et il existe environ 14/15 siècles. Ensuite, le mot est d’abord attesté dans le livre de “l’hôpital Saint-Julien de Nancy” en 1605 (Guy Carbourdin).)

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The bottom crust was originally made from bread dough, but that has long since evolved into a short-crust or puff pastry crust.  It was only later that cheese was added to the quiche Lorraine. If you add onions, you have quiche Alsacienne. In the early 20th centry,  Quiche was spared all over France after the introduction by the article in cooking magazine.    1904: the famous chef, Prosper Montagné is the author of  “Le grand livre de cuisine”  & largely contributed to “le Larousse gastronomique” ).  1903:  another famous chef , And Georges Auguste Escoffier,  wrote “Le Guide Culinaire”

キッシュはその昔、村で唯一窯を持っていたパン屋さんで焼かれていたので、パン生地が主流だったようです。具材もベーコンだけでなく、キッシュロレーヌにチーズが入り、オニオンが入れば、アルザス風のキッシュになっていきました。その後、1903〜4年、プロスペル・モンタニュ やエスコフィエなど当時の有名料理人たちが次々と『料理法』とか、料理機関誌に紹介してフランス全土に広がっていったようです。

La pâte de fond a été fabriqué à partir de pâte à pain, mais qui a depuis longtemps évolué dans une Pâte brisée  ou pâte feuilletée. Il a été que plus tard que le fromage a été ajouté à la quiche Lorraine. Si vous ajoutez les oignons, vous avez quiche Alsacienne.  Au début du 20e centry, Quiche a été épargnée partout en France après l’introduction par l’article dans le magazine de cuisson. 1904: le célèbre chef, Prosper Montagné est l’auteur de “Le grand livre de cuisine” et a largement contribué à «le Larousse gastronomique”). 1903: un autre grand chef, et Georges Auguste Escoffier, a écrit “Le Guide Culinaire”.

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Quiche became popular in England sometime after WWII, and in the USA during the 1950s. Today, there are many varieties of quiche.

キッシュは第二次世界大戦後、イギリスやアメリカにも広まったよう。日本にだってありますよね、キッシュ。でも日本のキッシュはバターの香りもしないし、ちっちゃいし、高いものが多いけど。

Quiche est devenu populaire en Angleterre quelque temps après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, et aux Etats-Unis durant les années 1950. Aujourd’hui, il existe de nombreuses variétés de quiche.

 

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次回はレシピ! お楽しみに。

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